As the coronavirus pandemic continues to rage across the world and with the US, Europe and Asia struggling to fight off a 2nd and 3rd wave of the deadly virus, researchers are working with unprecedented relentless speed and determination to produce new treatments and vaccines to fight it. Much research has been focused on studying antibodies from the blood of people who have recovered from COVID-19, the disease that is caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus, in the hope that from a theoretical perspective the world will revert back to normalcy and will be able to restart the economy without the risk of reinfection.
How Do We Develop Antibodies and Become Immune?
Antibodies are molecules that are produced by the immune system to fight infection. When germs enter your body, your immune system springs into action and acts as follows:
- Bacteria and viruses like the ones that causes COVID-19 have proteins called antigens on their surfaces. Each type of germ has its own unique antigen.
- White blood cells of your immune system make proteins called antibodies to fight the antigen. Antibodies attach to antigens the way a key fits into a lock, and they try to destroy the invading germ.
- Once you’ve been exposed to a virus, your body makes memory cells to thwart it.If it is successful you will not suffer the affliction and you will be protected.In the event If you’re exposed to that same virus again, these cells recognize it. They tell your immune system to make antibodies against it.
If You’ve Had COVID-19, Are You Immune?
Some countries want to issue “immunity passports” for people who have antibodies to the virus that causes COVID-19, called the SARS-CoV-2. People with these “passports” will be allowed to go back to work and travel because they’re supposedly immune to the virus.
But health experts do not yet know whether they really do become immune to COVID-19 after they are infected. And even if they do become immune, we do not yet know how long that immunity will last.
Other types of coronaviruses appear to create some form of immunity. Studies show that people are protected against the coronaviruses that cause the common cold for up to a year after an infection. And our bodies have developed antibodies against the SARS coronavirus for up to 4 years.
Most people who’ve recovered from COVID-19 do make antibodies against the virus. But so far, there is no evidence to show conclusively that this will protect them against the virus if they’re exposed to it again.
Studies Report Rapid Loss of COVID-19 Antibodies
According to the journal “The Scientist”, a pair of studies published shed light on the duration of immunity following COVID-19, showing that patients lose their IgG antibodies—the virus-specific, slower-forming antibodies associated with long-term immunity—within weeks or months after recovery. With COVID-19, most people who become infected do produce antibodies, and even small amounts can still neutralize the virus in vitro, according to earlier scientific studies. However, these latest studies could not determine if a lack of antibodies leaves people at risk of reinfection.
One of the studies found that 10 percent of nearly 1,500 COVID-positive patients registered undetectable antibody levels within weeks of first showing symptoms, while the other of 74 patients found they typically lost their antibodies two to three months after recovering from the infection, especially among those who tested positive but were asymptomatic.
In contrast, infections caused by the coronavirus cousins such as SARS and MERS result in antibodies that remain in the body for nearly a year according to a report published in The New York Times.
The first study on Covid 19, published June 16 on the preprint server medRxiv, screened for antibodies in almost 1,500 coronavirus patients in Wuhan, China. The researchers compared their levels to three other groups: nearly 20,000 members of the general population; more than 1,600 patients hospitalized for reasons other than COVID-19; and more than 3,800 medical workers, whom the authors assumed had “inevitably” been exposed to the virus in its early days, meaning they should have developed antibodies.
They found that while almost 90 percent of COVID-19 patients had antibodies, roughly 1 percent to 5 percent of individuals in the others groups had them as well. The authors conclude in their paper that the remaining 10 percent of infected patients with no detectable antibodies, combined with the lack of antibodies in healthcare workers, suggest that “after SARS-CoV-2 infection, people are unlikely to produce long-lasting protective antibodies against this virus.”
In the second study, published June 18 in Nature Medicine, researchers compared the immune responses of 37 asymptomatic but positive patients to an equal number with severe symptoms living in the Wanzhou District in China. They found that asymptomatic individuals reacted less strongly to infection, with 40 percent having undetectable levels of protective antibodies in the two to three months after the infection compared to 13 percent of the symptomatic patients.
“Overall, these results are interesting and provocative but more research is needed, following large numbers of people over time,” Daniel Davis, an immunologist at the University of Manchester, tells Newsweek. “Only then will we clearly know how many people produce antibodies when infected with coronavirus, and for how long.”
The Measurement of Antibodies Specific to COVID-19
According to the WHO, the development of immunity to a pathogen through natural infection is a multi-step process that typically takes place over 1-2 weeks. The body responds to a viral infection immediately with a non-specific innate response where the body makes antibodies that specifically bind to the virus. Scientists focus a lot on antibodies as markers of immunity in part because they are easy to measure. Antibodies effectiveness do tend to wane over time in many instances, but when that happens, the immune system doesn’t necessarily have to start again from scratch. Memory of a past infection can be stored in a cell called a memory B cell.
At this stage in the current pandemic, there is not enough evidence about the effectiveness of antibody-mediated immunity to guarantee immunity to a second infection.
Is Herd Immunity Possible?
Herd immunity is a form of indirect protection from infectious disease that occurs when a large percentage of a population has become immune to an infection, whether through vaccination or previous infections, thereby providing a measure of protection for individuals who are not immune.
Spain’s large-scale study, a nationwide representative sample of more than 61,000 participants on the coronavirus indicates just 5% of its population has developed antibodies, strengthening evidence that a so-called herd immunity to Covid-19 is “unachievable.
The findings show that 95% of Spain’s population still remains susceptible to the virus.
“These reports highlight the need to develop strong vaccines, because immunity that develops naturally during infection is suboptimal and short-lived in most people,” Akiko Iwasaki, a viral immunologist at Yale University said. “We cannot rely on natural infection to achieve herd immunity.”
Ultimately, a full picture of SARS-CoV-2 immunity is likely to extend beyond antibodies. Other immune cells called T cells are important for long-term immunity. People are equating antibody to immunity, but the immune system is so much more complex than just antibodies alone.
T Cells and Vaccines
Yet another line of defense against the virus is a kind of immune cell called a T cell. T-cells can recognize and eliminate other cells infected with the virus. This is called cellular immunity.
Scientists developing some of the coronavirus vaccines have noticed that their experimental products spark a strong T-cell response. That includes the vaccine from the University of Oxford, which is in an advanced stage of testing.
“We know from many other infections, the vaccine response can be much more durable than the natural infection response,” says Adrian Hill, who is the principal investigator for this vaccine study. That’s partly because people get a strong dose with a vaccine, which stimulates strong immunity.
Because there is not yet a clear, measurable marker in the body that correlates with long-term immunity, researchers must piece together the patchwork of immune responses and compare it with responses to infections with other viruses to estimate how durable the protection might be. Studiesof other coronaviruses suggest that ‘sterilizing immunity’, which prevents infection, might last for only a matter of months. But protective immunity, which can prevent or ease symptoms, could last longer than that.
How to Develop Protective Immunity and Build Resilience to COVID-19?
No vaccines have been developed at this point in time, even though more than 100 possible vaccines are in various stages of development around the world, according to the World Health Organization.
While it is important to take preventive measures like wearing a mask, social distancing etc, to reduce the likelihood of getting infected, it is equally important to enhance, regulate our immune system with supplements which have inherent immunomodulating properties so as to control inflammation and build resilience to Covid-19.
How can Caviarlieri, a Swiss Caviar Cellular Therapy supplement help regulate your immune system and reduce your inflammation?
Caviarlieri with its immunomodulating properties, is formulated with potent bioactive ingredients like Sturgeon Caviar DNA cellular extract and high quality marine peptides which are extremely rich in DHA and EPA (essential fatty acids) known to enhance B cell activity, which could be useful for those with a compromised immune system.
Manufactured using a proprietary Swiss cold extraction technology, Cellularix, the ingredients are kept “active” so that the chemical integrity and potency of the micro nutrients are not destroyed or compromised. This will help optimize our absorption of the micro nutrients into the body and maximize the outcomes and results.
In addition, the Caviarlieri is made of potent peptides which help to escort the nutrients into our cells for protein synthesis which is an important process to accelerate cellular renewal and repair versus damaged cells. If essential nutrition is provided at the cellular level, it will help maintain or strengthen the functionality of our immune system and potentially provide cellular immunity.
The scientific studies on Caviarlieri published in peer reviewed journals have proven that it has powerful antioxidant properties which can potentially prevent damage to the immune cells by neutralizing free radicals. Free radicals are substances in the environment that can damage cells and reduce immunity. Supplementing with Caviarlieri can also help increase the activation of cells involved in regulating our immunity.
Another active ingredient of Caviarlieri is Selenium. This potent antioxidant keeps our immunity in check by identifying and warding off potentially harmful threats, like viruses, parasites and bacteria. It is also known to help regulate our immune responses and protect us against infectious microorganisms.
Significant Reduction of Inflammation
Caviarlieri is scientifically proven to help reduce the Tumour Necrosis Factor Alpha which is an important inflammatory biomarker for metabolic syndrome conditions. In addition, Caviarlieri can also reduce the C-reactive protein (CRP), a blood test marker for inflammation in the body. CRP is classified as an acute phase reactant, which means that its levels will rise in response to inflammation and protect the body.
There are also several current and ongoing studies which indicate that Caviarlieri triggers the epigenetic mechanisms of the cells to activate gene expression for inflammation reduction which will help alleviate the onset of any of the risks associated with the diseases as a consequence of metabolic syndrome.
Note: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of conditions such as high blood pressure, high blood sugar, unhealthy cholesterol levels, excess abdominal fat that increases your risk of heart disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes.
Published in Peer Reviewed Journal – Acta Bio Medical / Official Journal of the Society of Medicine and Natural Sciences of Parma Vol 84-53-60/2013
A sturgeon-derived bioactive compound beneficially modulates nuclear receptors controlling metabolic functions in patients with metabolic syndrome
A. Lorenzetti, R. Catanzaro, G. Bertuccelli, N. Zerbinati, . Jain, U. Solimene, S.K. Yaduvanshi, N. Srivastava, E.Minelli, H. Yadav, C. Tomella, F.Marotta
The aim of the study was to test the possible effects of a novel sturgeon-derived compound Caviar DNA Extract (LD-1227) on inflammatory markers related to metabolic nuclear receptors in patients with metabolic syndrome. The study population consisted of 76 patients with metabolic syndrome and 30 healthy subjects who were maintained to their current treatments and randomly supplemented with A) Caviar DNA Extract (LD-1227) (n=38) or B) placebo (n=38) as compared to C) healthy controls (n=30). Caviar DNA Extract (LD-1227) or placebo (water-soluble starch) were given daily at breakfast and dinner for three months.
At the end of the study period, as compared to B group, Caviar DNA Extract LD-1227-treated patients showed a significant improvement of all parameters (hs-CRP, IL-6, TNF-alpha) tested, irrespective of the presence of diabetes. The study’s findings show that although the metabolic syndrome remains a multifaceted condition requiring a complex approach, Caviarlieri (LD-1227) could be a potential safe therapeutic tool to be integrated into a wider treatment and preventive medicine schedule strategy.
Why is Caviarlieri a Safe and Potent Option?
Caviarlieri is not a drug but a oral food supplement approved by the Swiss Public Health Authority. Unlike drugs or medications, there are no side effects from long term use. Caviarlieri is also certified by the “Cologne List” to be free of steroids, hormones and stimulants which makes it safe for long-term use.
Manufactured using the Swiss Cold Process Extraction Technology, Cellularix, Caviarlieri comes in a soft gel form which encapsulates the Caviar bioactive nutrients and marine peptides for optimal absorption. It is important to know that not all food supplements are able to do so.
By providing essential nutrition at the cellular level, Caviarlieri triggers protein synthesis and stimulates our own body system to heal, repair and renew our cells at an accelerated rate against damaged cells. Unlike drugs, it will take a 3-6 months regime for the cellular healing and repair to generate maximum benefits and results.
Caviarlieri is also backed by Science as it has several studies published in peer-reviewed journals and the benefit claims are therefore evidence based, like significant increase in energy levels, mood elevation, reduction in joint pain, enhancement of sleep quality, improving brain health, reduction in inflammation and many others. These are important benefits which will potentially protect us from the malefic effects of Covid19.